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GARDENING TIPS FOR JANUARY

gardening
January is the time to plant :

– Asparagus seedlings
– Basil seeds
– Beans – Dwarf/Bush/French seeds
– Beans – Pole/Runner seeds
– Broccoli seeds
– Brussels Sprouts seeds
– Cabbage seeds
– Carrot seeds
– Cauliflower seeds
– Chilli/Hot Peppers seeds
– Chives seeds
– Coriander seeds
– Dill seeds
– Eggplant seedlings
– French Tarragon seeds
– Globe Artichoke seedlings
– Kohlrabi seeds
– Leek seeds
– Lemon Balm seeds
– Lettuce seeds
– Mint seeds
– Mustard Greens seeds
– Okra seeds
– Onion seeds
– Oregano seeds
– Parsley seeds
– Potatoes
– Rocket seeds
– Rosemary seedlings
– Sage seedlings
– Spring Onion seeds
– Strawberry seedlings
– Strawberry plants
– Summer Savoury seedlings
– Sunflower seeds
– Sweet Marjorum seeds
– Tomatillo seedlings
– Watermelon seeds
– Zucchini/Courgette seeds

Top up with more mulch making sure to prioritise tomatoes and leaf crops. Give an application of liquid fertiliser like compost/bokashi bin/worm tea diluted with water especially to tomatoes, egg plants and peppers. Don’t cultivate unnecessarily between rows during dry weather.

Be on the look out for Papilio demodocus also known as Citrus Swallowtail on young citrus trees. One larvae, also known as an orange dog, can eat quite a few leaves and leave your tree quite bare. They are well camouflaged and look like bird droppings to the untrained eye. We found larvae on our orange tree in the night and finally solved the mystery as to how the citrus trees kept losing all their leaves.


They make beautiful butterflies with a large wingspan of 85mm. They are black, banded, spotted and speckled with yellow hind wings each with two black, blue and orange eyespots.

References:
www.organic seeds.co.za
The A – Z of Vegetable Gardening in South Africa by Jack Hadfieldhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papilio_demodocus
Field guide To Insects of South Africa by Mike Picker, Charles Griffiths and Alan Weaving, 2004.

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ECO BRICKS FOR THE WIN

EcoBrick wall
In short: Get a plastic bottle, using a stick about the third of the width of the opening of the bottle and about twice the length of the bottle, pack the bottle with plastic and non-recyclable clean and dry materials.  Twist the plastic and those coffee bags, and break it up to get it all in. To be complete, it must weigh the minimum weight, to ensure quality control. This is the bottle volume x 0.35 to get an amount in grams. Once it’s heavy enough, it may be stored for a project you would like to build or you can drop it off at a central point for builders to collect. A 500ml plastic bottle should weigh a minimum of 175g, a 1500ml bottle should weigh a minimum of 500g and a 2 litre coke bottle should weigh 700g. Start with small bottles first to get into the groove. You will be amazed at how much trash can fit into such a small space. We go into detail below
Remember when I said we got rid of the non recycling bin for 2018? That would not have been possible without subscribing to the eco brick idea. So what’s so special about the eco brick?
Eco bricks keep plastic and carbon dioxide out of the biosphere. Plastic pollution is suffocating our planet and we are learning the hard way that being a throw away society doesn’t do the environment any favours. By packing your own ecobrick, you are taking responsibility of the plastic that you use.

Plastics are made from petro-chemicals. These chemicals don’t fit back into the ecologies around us.  Scientific studies show that the component chemicals are toxic. Plastics that are littered, burned or dumped will eventually degrade into poisonous chemicals over time and will leach into the land, water and air. It is then absorbed by plants and animals. Engineered dump sites may seem like a solution but after reading an article written by someone who worked at a large plastic recycling facility, I’ve realised that they are merely a temporary solution which uses a lot of resources and energy. All the chemicals from plastic will seep into the biosphere in time.

Plastics degrade in 3 main ways. They are through heat, UV exposure (sunlight) and friction. Plastics don’t biodegrade, they photodegrade.  This means that plastics left for years in fields, beaches or water will slowly break into smaller and smaller pieces. Eventually these pieces are so small that they are absorbed by the plants, fishes and animals. You could be eating plastic and not even know it.

Plastic has dire effects on the human body.  Chemicals like Biphenyl A and Phalates are now banned in certain products in America and Europe. Unfortunately, these chemicals continue to be widely used in the Philippines and other Asian countries.  Small amounts of these chemicals have adverse effects on animals including humans and can cause allergies, hormonal imbalances, cancer and acute poisoning.  The young  are the most vulnerable.

Ecobricks trap plastics and prevent them from being degraded by sun, heat or friction.  Yippee for eco bricks!!The sad truth is that many people don’t realize just how dangerous and toxic plastic can be.

Perhaps most significantly, the hands on process of making an ecobrick raises the maker’s ecological consciousness. The process is meditative.  It gets Ecobrickers reflecting:  Where did this plastic come from?  Where is it going? Why is it here?  Where will it be in 100 years?  Would it be better to just grow my own coffee?

To reuse the material of a simple plastic bottle, the global industrial recycling system uses a vast amount of energy.  Plastic is first collected by trucks and delivered to a sorting facility involving massive machinery. The plastic is then shipped across the world to a foundry to be turned into raw materials.  These raw materials are then sent to a factory to produce a new product.  This product is then shipped around the world to a store.To make matters even worse, plastic that has been recycled will never make the same quality of plastic again. E.g A PET bottle when recycled will not make another PET bottle. Instead, the recycled plastic will be of a lesser quality and used to make something else and each time it is recycled, it will produce a lesser quality to eventually end up on a dump or hopefully, in an eco brick.

Ecobricking and the application of an ecobrick takes place within the circle of one’s community.  The consumed plastic is put to use locally. There are no machines, transportation or high energy systems required.

Traditional waste management systems require giant budgets, proprietary technology and vast amounts of energy to run.  The recycling of plastic bottles can result in plastic bouncing around the planet from a store in Canada, to a foundry in China, to a factory in the Philippines, to a river, to the ocean.  Often, as soon as a city builds a recycling plant, there is already more plastic than capacity.

Ecobricking requires no special machines, skills, or finances to implement.  The technology is 100% open source.  Because of its simplicity, Ecobricking can spread and over-reach plastic consumption rates.

Ok! I get it so how do we make them?

Ecobrick making is simple, but there are important guidelines. Start right as this is a long-term lifestyle habit that you, your household and community are starting. If you’re working at a school, it is important that your ecobricking sets the example for your students.  Make sure that students are guided and graded strictly for their first Ecobricks.  Your first ecobrick is the most important because it will lead to many, many more.  Here is a detailed step by step guide to making the best eco bricks that you can make.

When choosing the bottle that you will use to Ecobrick your plastic, consider three factors: the bottle’s prevalence, the volume, and the project you will use the ecobrick for.

  1.  Prevalence:  Be sure to choose bottles that are in abundance in your community.  Its ideal to have everyone in your community ecobricking with the exact same brand and bottle, so you’ll want to make sure there is a good supply.
  2. Volume: Large 2L bottles will take a lot of plastic…. but also take a long time to make. We have been busy with our first 2L bottle for over 2 weeks already and it is only half full!  For workshops, small 500ml bottles are best. New ecobrickers can finish one ecobrick easily.  Large bottles are best for advanced ecobrickers.
  3. Project:  For building modules with Ecobricks, you need bottles that are exactly the same size and shape. For outdoor building projects, exact sameness is not so important, so long as the volume is consistent (i.e. all 500ml bottles).  Depending on the size of construction, you will need different size bottles.  E.g. small bottles make good walls, and large bottles make good benches.

All you need to Ecobrick is a stick. Having the right stick will make a big difference though.  Bamboo and wood make the best sticks. The size of the stick depends on the type of bottle you go with. The best stick is one that is roughly one third the width of a bottle opening and about twice the height of your bottle.  Avoid sharp cornered sticks as they can rupture the bottle and you can get splinters and blisters on your hand.

Metal, paper, cardboard, glass and biodegradables will not poison the biosphere, so there is no need to put them in a bottle. Thank goodness for that!  Use the space of your ecobrick to pack away the otherwise dangerous plastics.  Be especially careful not to pack sharp metal or glass into an ecobrick. As you pack it down it, will rupture the sides and pose a danger for handling.

  • Paper and cardboard can be safely burnt.
  • Biodegradeables can be composted.
  • Metal and glass can be recycled.

Use a coloured soft plastic to give the brick bottom a color. Pack it in with your stick to fill the first one or two centimeters (you might want to use a few plastics of the same color).  Cellophane works great. By giving your ecobrick a bottom colour, you open up colorful design possibilities. Often companies, organizations or schools will ask their members to make Ecobricks with their community colors.

Save and segregate your non-biodegradable waste.  Ecobricks are best made with clean and dry plastic.  After all, you may be using the Ecobricks to build furniture for your home and you will want it to look good. Dirty plastic will lead to microbiological growth and the formation of methane inside the bottle (for a solution for dirty plastic see the Ocean Ecobrick).  This can lead to bloated Ecobricks and in rare cases, caps popping off.
As our eco brick sits in the kitchen, we pack ours as we need to throw away so the rubbish doesn’t build up but goes straight into the Ecobrick.
Use the stick to push the plastic around the inside of the bottle down. Move in a circle pushing down along the sides.  To maximize the density, its good to mix soft, then hard plastic.  Cut up big plastics into smaller pieces.  The smaller the pieces, the denser you’ll get!

Special Tip:  Once you get to the middle of your ecobrick, pack 2-3cms of lighter colored plastic.  By forming a center  ring made of white plastic, you will later have a clear location to label your Ecobrick with a permanent black marker.
Keep packing your ecobrick until it is full.  A 600ml bottle will have a minimum weight of 200 grams and a 2000ml bottle will have a minimum weight of 700 grams.

Minimum density goals are a good way to motivate Ecobrickers and ensure quality Ecobricks.  Ecobricks that are too soft cannot be used for modules.  Ecobricks that are too squishy can compromise horizontal cob construction. By densely packing the bottle, we maximize the volume of the bottle for trapping and keeping plastic out of the biosphere.  A good solid ecobrick is something you can be proud of.

You may use a log sheet or the GoBrik app to log each ecobrick as it comes in.  There you can also find a log sheet that can be photocopied. Record data such as the maker of the ecobrick, the weight, the bottle volume, the quality, etc.  This way you can track your community’s ecobricking progress.  Paper and spreadsheets work great– and so does GoBrik,  the free web based app that designers worked hard to develop. just for this purpose.

Simply visit www.GoBrik.com with the web browser on your phone, sign in with Facebook or email, create an account, then begin to log your Ecobricks.  GoBrik will do the rest– compiling stats for you and your community.

Make sure your ecobrick is not packed to overflowing.  Plastic should not be pushing up against the lid, otherwise the lid may be damaged over time.  Once sealed, label your Ecobrick with a paper label or use a black permanent marker.  Depending on your community project, the following data is helpful to record:

  • Your name
  • Date and year
  • The intended Community Project
  • ID number (generated by the Ecobrick App)
  • Final weight

Many ecobrickers write a prayer or a vision on the bottle in a permanent marker.  Your ecobrick will last a long time.  Why not let your grandkids know that you were thinking of them?

“I envision a world where plastic is used seldom and wisely and where we live in harmony with the cycles of nature”

Once complete, you will need to store your Ecobricks until you have enough for your project or you can drop them off at a drop off point where the bottles will be collected to build.  Store Ecobricks indoors, out of the sun.  Stack horizontally, with the bottoms pointed outward (this way you can see the colors you have to work with).  Its good to have the Ecobricks raised slightly above the floor as rats have been known to chew away at bottles!

Once you have enough Ecobricks you’re ready to build. There are five main techniques for building with bottles and Ecobricks.   The easiest, fastest, and perhaps the most fun Ecobrick application, is to make Milstein modules for horizontal building and Dieleman modules for vertical building. With modules you can create benches, table, chairs, structures and more.

Some say, the best use for Ecobricks is building community green spaces. Using local earth and Ecobricks, you and your community can build beautiful spaces that enrich the local environment.

Where can I drop them off?

The Greenpop Nursery at 107 Mountain Road, Woodstock
Gezakapa Recycling at 1 Orange Street, Cape Town City Centre
Cobute in Potsdam Road, Tableview
The Daily Grinder in Glencairn
The Health Connection in Valyland, Fish Hoek
Hanger 18 in Koeberg Road


Note: A different process is used to take Contaminated plastics from the ocean and make an ocean brick. More information about that process here.
References

Ecobricks: Plastic, Solved.


https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/jun/28/a-million-a-minute-worlds-plastic-bottle-binge-as-dangerous-as-climate-change?CMP=share_btn_fb

Recycling: The Evil Illusion

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HOW TO MAKE A COMPOST BIN FROM PALLETS

 

Earlier in in 2017, we started keeping all the garden waste. Branches and leaves from pruning and raking were used in our compost pile as well as saved kitchen scraps and the contents of our eco loo. While these compost piles worked well in the sense that they broke down and matured into usable compost, they did take up space and became a bit of an eyesore with a garden developing around them.

We were keen on making a tidier compost bin which would create a large volume, big enough to enable the materials to heat up and cure. We used this informative video above as a guide to making ours. Now we have a big box in the corner to throw all our organic waste away in.


We didn’t use fancy hinges and replaced these with chains that were lying in the garage.  As we will only open this bin when the compost is ready, we didn’t want to go to too much trouble. We can always add hinges and a fancy two-part door later 😉

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SCOBY (Symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast)

Scoby

A scoby can be used to make kombucha tea with either green tea or black tea and sugar. Kombucha tea contains beneficial bacteria, enzymes, amino acids, B – vitamins and sometimes vitamin C. If the tea is left to ferment long enough, it turns the liquid into a vinegar like substance which has other uses.

You can buy a scoby in a jar for R75 here.

Scobys make more scobys which can also be used as microbial cellulose to make things. Here is an interesting video where a leather like material was made. We do not condone the use of beeswax but another vegan material could be used which has similar properties. This video is to show how easy it is to be experimental and we hope that it inspires some of you to try and make things from scobys.

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Watermelon Slushy

Watermelon Slushy

Serves: 1

Ingredients

  • 2 cups of frozen cubes watermelon with seeds removed
  • 1 cup of water
  • 1 tablespoon of syrup
  • A few mint or basil leaves (optional)

 

Instructions

  1. Combine all ingredients in a blender  and blend until smooth.
  2. Pour into a big bold glass and garnish if you like, however you like.
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Mango Smoothie

Mango Smoothie

Mango Smoothie

Serves: 1

Ingredients

  • 1 frozen mango peeled
  • 2 tablespoons of ground up cashews (use the coffee grinder)
  • 1 cup non GMO soy milk
  • Mint (optional)

 

Instructions

  1. Combine all ingredients in a blender  and blend until smooth.
  2. Pour into a big bold glass and garnish if you like however you like.

 

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Unicorn Cafe Business Update for January 2018

Logo

Welcome to 2018 🙂

What a wonderful and exciting time it is right now! The New Year is a chance for new beginnings, new year’s resolutions, being more mindful and finding new ways to be better people for not only ourselves and our inner peace but also for a healthier and happier environment.

New year’s resolutions often seem like a waste. However, after a few small changes it gets easier. As you go along and as you will meet more people who share the same values and this will leave you feeling more optimistic about the future.

For us 2018 is about zero waste all the way. We’ve ditched our non-recycling bin and have taken that option away from our daily living. We are now filling eco bricks which are 2 litre empty coke bottles with materials that cannot be recycled. These eco bricks are dropped off at collection points and used to build homes, community centres and all sorts of useful structures that assist people. See the section called “Eco bricks for the win” down below for more information. You won’t beleive the amount of waste that a 2 litre coke bottle can take. It’s unbelievable! There is zero waste and then there’s zero waste. For the waste you can’t aviod there’s the eco brick option.

We recently built a compost bin to replace the compost piles in the garden. We need that space to plant more trees before the rains come. Our food forest is starting to take shape! We share our information on how to build one down below.

Our quotes this month are from Aldo Leopold who was an American author, philosopher, ecologist, forester, conservationist and environmentalist. He wrote a book called A Sand County Almanac which has sold more than 2 million copies. Leopold was influential in the movement for wildlife conservation and in the development for modern environmental ethics. He emphasized biodiversity and was a founder of wildlife management science.

We hope you enjoy reading this newsletter and that it enhances your environmental wisdom. We wish all abundance for 2018.

The Unicorn Cafe Team.

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GARDENING TIPS FOR DECEMBER

gardening
GARDENING TIPS FOR DECEMBER
December is the time to plant :

– Angelica seedlings
– Asparagus seeds
– Basil seeds
– Beans – Dwarf/Bush/French seeds
– Beans – Pole/Runner seeds
– Beetroot seedlings
– Borage seedlings
– Broccoli seeds
– Brussels Sprouts seeds
– Cabbage seeds
– Cauliflower seeds
– Chilli/Hot Peppers seeds
– Chives seeds
– Coriander seeds
– Corn Salad seeds
– Corn Maize seeds
– Dill seeds
– Eggplant seeds
– French Tarragon seeds
– Globe Artichokes seed trays
– Lemon Balm seeds
– Lettuce seeds
– Melon/Cantaloupe seeds
– Mint seeds
– Mustard Greens seeds
– NZ Spinach seedlings
– Okra seeds
– Onion seeds
– Oregano seeds
– Parsley seeds
– Potatoes
– Pumpkin seeds
– Rocket seeds
– Rosemary seedlings
– Sage seedlings
– Salsify seeds
– Spring Onion seeds
– Strawberry seedlings
– Strawberry plants
– Summer Savoury seedlings
– Sunflower seeds
– Sweet Marjorum seeds
– Sweet Potatoes
– Thyme seeds
– Tomatillo seeds
– Watermelon seeds
– Winter Savoury seedlings
– Zucchini/Courgette seeds

Feed all leaf crops with liquid fertilizer like worm or compost tea.

References:
www.organic seeds.co.za
The A – Z of Vegetable Gardening in South Africa by Jack Hadfield
http://www.garden-network.co.uk/listing/organic-ways-to-solve-a-problem-with-aphids

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GREYWATER FILTRATION

Grey water is any residential waste water including dish, shower, sink and laundry water (excluding toilet water) that may be repurposed. Grey water is especially used in landscape irrigation as some plants thrive on used water containing small bits of compost. There are various benefits associated with its use. They include lower fresh water use, less energy and chemical use, improved plant treatment, groundwater recharge and reclamation of otherwise wasted nutrients.

The most natural way to handle greywater is through direct reuse. That is, the greywater is directly led to a living soil, where pollutants can be converted by micro and macrofauna. In this way, the water and nutrients are used to stimulate plant growth. It must be noted that greywater cannot be stored for long before taking on an odour and becoming a health hazard. However, the water may be treated and subsequently held in tanks for later non-potable use.

A mulch pit can be used as a cheap, easy and effective way of treating greywater. Mulch can be any biodegradable loose material like straw, leaves, grass cuttings, wood chips, bark, paper, cardboard and rocks. So, a mulch pit is essentially a hole or a swale dug, and filled with mulch material. Mulch pits act like big sponges that absorb water and slowly release it to nearby plants. Mulch pits clean grey water because after a while, they become rich in microorganisms that feed away on impurities in grey water.  The larger pit, the better it works but half a meter cubed is a good place to start. Mulch pits can work around trees, or trenches that snake through your garden. On a big scale, trenches are dug along the contour of the land and food is grown on the mound that is dig up. This also makes water work through the land before passing through and causing floods and soil erosion. The more water in the ground, the better. The only engineering that is required is the construction of the pipes and/or trenches that will carry the greywater from the source to the pit itself. The pipe should be placed at the same level as the top of the mulch pit. This way, grease and food scraps lie on the top of the mulch and can compost. If you are concerned about having a pipe above ground, then a flat stone could be placed on top of the pipe to cover it. Alternatively, you can create a small cave by placing the pipe below the mulch surface and surrounding it with stones. You would have to check the inlet monthly to make sure it has not become clogged.

As shown in the figure below, the water is filtered through the mulch material and eventually flows towards a tree at the centre of the pit.

                          
As the greywater reaches the surface of the mulch pit it should spread all over the surface instead of pooling in one spot. You could place an old plate on the surface of the mulch so that water coming from the pipe splashes outwards and is quite simply distributed.

You may occasionally have to remove particles that may be blocking the pipe and rearrange the mulch material with a shovel. If a layer of scum forms at the pipe outlet, you can remove it if you so choose. However, the scum will not adversely affect the effectiveness of the mulch pit since the water will simply flow over the layer of solidified scum and infiltrate at another location. Also, if there are many large food scraps present in the effluent, you may have to remove them to ensure that these particles do not block the pipe opening. In short, this system is easy to maintain.

References:
https://hubpages.com/education/Mulch-Filter-for-Grey-Water-Clean-up
https://stanford.edu/group/esw/cgi-bin/mediawiki/images/3/35/Greywater.doc
http://oasisdesign.net/greywater/
www.mullfilterbolaget.se/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Sydafrika1.pdf

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